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Distribution Of Antibiotic For Eye Disease Linked To Low Death Risk Among Ethiopian Children PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 02 September 2009 01:24

Children in Ethiopia who received the antibiotic azithromycin as a method for controlling the contagious eye disease trachoma had a lower odds of death compared to children who did not receive the antibiotic, according to a study in the September 2 issue of JAMA.

Researchers Induce HIV-neutralizing Antibodies That Recognize HIV-1 Envelope Protein, Lipids PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 02 September 2009 00:05

For the first time, researchers have experimentally induced antibodies that neutralize HIV-1 and simultaneously recognize both HIV-1 envelope protein and lipids. The results were reported by U.S. Military HIV Research Program (MHRP) researchers on Aug. 25 in the online version of AIDS, the official journal of the International AIDS Society.

New Study Suggests An Unidentified Source As Cause Of Residual Viremia In HIV-1 Patients On HAART PDF Print E-mail
Monday, 31 August 2009 02:48

A new study suggests that an unidentified cellular source may be responsible for residual viremia in HIV-1 patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This discovery disputes previous theories that attributed residual viremia to latent proviruses in resting CD4+ T cells and could significantly impact eradication efforts.

Gene Mutation Alone Causes Transmissible Prion Disease PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 28 August 2009 02:55

For the first time, Whitehead Institute researchers have shown definitively that mutations associated with prion diseases are sufficient to cause a transmissible neurodegenerative disease. The discovery is reported in the August 27 edition of the journal Neuron. Until now, two theories about the role mutations play in prion diseases have been at odds. According to one theory, mutations make carriers more susceptible to prions in the environment. Alternatively, mutations themselves might cause the disease and the spontaneous generation of transmissible prions.

The Path To New Antibiotics PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 28 August 2009 02:30

Researchers at Burnham Institute for Medical Research (Burnham), University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and University of Maryland have demonstrated that an enzyme that is essential to many bacteria can be targeted to kill dangerous pathogens. In addition, investigators discovered chemical compounds that can inhibit this enzyme and suppress the growth of pathogenic bacteria. These findings are essential to develop new broad-spectrum antibacterial agents to overcome multidrug resistance.

Typhoid Fever Cases In U.S. Linked To Foreign Travel PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 26 August 2009 01:08

Infection with an antimicrobial-resistant strain of typhoid fever among patients in the United States is associated with international travel, especially to the Indian subcontinent (India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh), according to a study in the August 26 issue of JAMA. The study also shows an increase in certain strains of typhoid fever that are resistant to the most commonly used medications for treatment.

Towards Malaria 'Vaccine': Discovery Opens The Door To Malaria-prevention Therapies PDF Print E-mail
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Monday, 24 August 2009 04:57

Malaria kills anywhere from one to three million people around the world annually and affects the lives of up to 500 million more. Yet until now, scientists did not fully understand exactly how the process that caused the disease's severe hallmark fevers began.

Mylan's Matrix Receives First And Only Tentative FDA Approval Under PEPFAR For Generic Version Of Atripla® HIV Treatment PDF Print E-mail
Monday, 24 August 2009 01:04
Mylan Inc. (NASDAQ: MYL) announced that Matrix Laboratories, an Indian company in which Mylan owns a controlling stake, has received tentative approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) for its Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) for a fixed-dose combination (FDC) of Efavirenz, Emtricitabine, Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Tablets, 600 mg/200 mg/300 mg. This is the first and only generic version of this product and will be eligible for purchase outside the U.S. in many developing countries.
New Strategy For Inhibiting Virus Replication PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 21 August 2009 04:25

Viruses need living cells for replication and production of virus progeny. Thus far, antiviral therapy primarily targets viral factors but often induces therapy resistance. New improved therapies attempt to targets cellular factors that are essential for viral replication. The team led by Professor Dr. Ralf Bartenschlager, Director of the Department of Molecular Virology at the Hygiene Institute of Heidelberg University Hospital, has identified a protein in infected liver cells that is essential for hepatitis C virus replication. Inhibiting this protein is highly efficient in blocking virus replication. The study is to be published in the prestigious journal PLoS Pathogens.

Did Mozart Die From A Strep Throat Infection? PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 21 August 2009 03:01
European researchers investigating records of deaths in Vienna around the time of Mozart's death at the age of 35 on 5 December 1791 suggest that the composer may have died from a streptococcal throat infection that led to a fatal kidney syndrome.The study is the work of first author Richard HC Zegers from the University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands and colleagues Andreas Weigl from the University of Vienna in Austria and Andrew Steptoe from University College London in the UK, and is published online in the 18 August issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine.
Study Evaluates Use Of Corticosteroids And Antiviral Agents For Treatment Of Bell Palsy PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 02 September 2009 01:19

Among patients with Bell Palsy, a facial paralysis with unknown cause, treatment with corticosteroids is associated with a reduced risk of an unsatisfactory recovery, and treatment with a combination of corticosteroids and antiviral agents may be associated with additional benefit, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis of previously published studies, reported in the September 2 issue of JAMA.

New Analysis Details Devastating Toll Of Neglected Tropical Diseases In Sub-Saharan Africa PDF Print E-mail
Monday, 31 August 2009 02:54

An analysis published August 25 in the open-access journal PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases sheds new light on the toll that neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) take on sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with an estimated 500 million people suffering from these debilitating and sometimes deadly diseases. Helminth infections account for approximately 85% of the NTD burden. Overall, the NTD burden may be equivalent to more than double that caused by tuberculosis and up to one-half of SSA's malaria disease burden.

HIV subtype linked to increased likelihood for dementia PDF Print E-mail
Monday, 31 August 2009 02:44

Patients infected with a particular subtype of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, are more likely to develop dementia than patients with other subtypes, a study led by Johns Hopkins researchers shows. The finding, reported in the September Clinical Infectious Diseases, is the first to demonstrate that the specific type of HIV has any effect on cognitive impairment, one of the most common complications of uncontrolled HIV infection.

Urine LAM-ELISA Poor At Diagnosing TB, Study Suggests PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 28 August 2009 02:50

Urine LAM-ELISA does not appear to be useful as an independent diagnostic test for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). A trial of the new diagnostic found that it was only capable of identifying 50.7% of TB cases.

Using Cranberry Juice To Combat Urinary Tract Infections 'Inconclusive' PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 26 August 2009 01:12

Current clinical evidence for using cranberry juice to combat urinary tract infections is 'unsatisfactory and inconclusive', according to Raul Raz. Not all medical problems require a state-of-the-art solution, and it would be nice to think that products from the corner shop could treat a widespread and uncomfortable ailment. Cranberry juice and related products have been touted as a simple solution for urinary tract infections, but Raul Raz, a member of F1000 Medicine, finds little to support this claim.

HVTN 505 HIV Vaccine Study Begins Enrolling Volunteers PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 26 August 2009 01:07

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the NIH, has opened enrollment in HVTN 505, an exploratory HIV vaccine clinical study examining whether a two-part vaccine regimen can decrease viral load (the amount of HIV in the blood) in study participants who later become infected with HIV. Viral load is an important health indicator in people who are infected with HIV because typically those with less virus remain healthier longer. Further, HIV-infected individuals with reduced levels of virus may be less likely to transmit the virus to other people.

First Genetically-engineered Malaria Vaccine To Enter Human Trials PDF Print E-mail
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Monday, 24 August 2009 04:53

Walter and Eliza Hall Institute scientists have created a weakened strain of the malaria parasite that will be used as a live vaccine against the disease. The vaccine, developed in collaboration with researchers from the US, Japan and Canada, will be trialled in humans from early next year. Malaria kills more than one million people each year and destroys – through premature death and disability – the equivalent of at least 35 million years of healthy, productive human life every year.

HIV Integrase Inhibitor Effective For Patients Beginning Antiretroviral Treatment, Study Suggests PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 21 August 2009 04:28

A member of a new class of antiretroviral drugs is safe and effective for patients beginning treatment against HIV, according to researchers who have completed a two-year multisite phase III clinical trial comparing it with standard antiretroviral drugs. The results are online and scheduled for publication in an upcoming issue of the Lancet.

Single host gene may hold key to treating both ebola and anthrax infections PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 21 August 2009 04:10

Research published by Army scientists indicates that a minor reduction in levels of one particular gene, known as CD45, can provide protection against two divergent microbes: the virus that causes Ebola hemorrhagic fever and the bacterium that causes anthrax. Taken together, the results suggest a common host restriction factor and a promising approach to drug development for treating two completely different infections.

RNAi Screen Uncovers Host Factors Interacting with HCV PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 21 August 2009 00:50
In a paper scheduled to appear online this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, scientists used an RNA interference screen to find host factors exploited during hepatitis C virus or HIV infection and pathogenicity.
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