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Genomics & Proteomics
New Genetic Link Between Cardiac Arrhythmias And Thyroid Dysfunction Identified PDF Print E-mail
Monday, 21 September 2009 02:02

Genes previously known to be essential to the coordinated, rhythmic electrical activity of cardiac muscle -- a healthy heartbeat -- have now also been found to play a key role in thyroid hormone (TH) biosynthesis, according to Weill Cornell Medical College researchers. The authors' findings, published online this week by the peer-reviewed journal Nature Medicine, suggest that mutations of either of two gene products -- proteins called KCNE2 and KCNQ1 -- already known to be involved in human cardiac arrhythmias, could also cause thyroid dysfunction.

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University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute Forms Omic Biosystems to Develop Proteomics IP PDF Print E-mail
Monday, 21 September 2009 01:53

The University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute yesterday announced the formation of Omic Biosystems, a new spinout company formed to commercialize proteomics technology developed by UMBI researchers. Omic is the second spinout company formed by UMBI in as many months, even as the institute, which is part of the University System of Maryland, is in the process of transitioning various components of its operations to other UM campuses in a bid to maximize research collaborations and boost external funding.

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Are HBV Genotype B/B3 And C/C1 The Major Genotypes In Indonesia? PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 18 September 2009 05:11
Previous studies revealed that HBV genotypes as well as mutations in the core promoter, precore or HBx gene have been shown to have an association with the clinical outcome of liver disease, however, this is still controversial. It is likely that this depends on the HBV genotype distribution in certain region. So far, there is no such data from Indonesia, which is a big country with a big population and a relatively high HBV carrier rate.
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Gene mutation causes severe epilepsy, febrile seizures in thousands of infants worldwide PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 18 September 2009 02:16

SALT LAKE CITYUniversity of Utah medical researchers have identified a gene with mutations that cause febrile seizures and contribute to a severe form of epilepsy known as Dravet syndrome in some of the most vulnerable patients infants 6 months and younger.

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Individual Genetic Data Illuminates How Genes Influence Human Health PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 16 September 2009 10:58

Two recent studies by Dartmouth researchers use individual genetic data to reveal the powers and limits of our current understanding of how the genome influences human health and what genes can reveal about the ancestry of the people of New Hampshire. Published in the Sept. 11 issue of the American Journal of Human Genetics, Dartmouth Professor Jason Moore and Vanderbilt Professor Scott Williams analyzed how personal genetic testing companies are using still-nascent genome data to judge the health of their customers. Their paper is titled "Epistasis and its Implications for Personal Genetics."

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When You've Doubled Your Genes, What's One Chromosome More Or Less? How Polyploidy And Genomic Change Can Lead To Evolutionary Change PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 16 September 2009 10:54

An individual with Down syndrome and a male calico cat have one thing in common—each has an extra chromosome. For animals, most instances of an extra chromosome result in birth defects or even death, but plants are another matter entirely. Many plants are able to survive the presence of an extra copy of their entire genome (known as polyploidy) and are often even more vigorous as a result. For plants, the process of polyploidy often results in a new species, making it an important mechanism in evolution. In fact, over 80% of plants may be a product of polyploidy.

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Monitoring Illegal Wildlife Trade: DNA 'Barcodes' For 25 Hunted Wildlife Species Sequenced PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 16 September 2009 10:39

Researchers from several institutions including the University of Colorado at Boulder have sequenced DNA "barcodes" for as many as 25 hunted wildlife species, providing information that can be used to better monitor the elusive trade of wildlife products, or bushmeat.

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New Genomic Model Defines Microbes By Diet; Provides Tool For Tracking Environmental Change PDF Print E-mail
Saturday, 12 September 2009 11:42

In line with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) interest in characterizing the biotic factors involved in global carbon cycling, the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI) characterizes a diverse array of plants, microorganisms, and the communities in which they reside to inform options for reducing and stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gases.

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Finding Of Genetic Region Controlling Cardiovascular Sensitivity To Anesthetic Propofol PDF Print E-mail
Saturday, 12 September 2009 11:21

Researchers at The Medical College of Wisconsin in Milwaukee have identified the genetic region in rats responsible for cardiovascular collapse during anesthesia. While it is well known that people have different cardiovascular sensitivity to anesthesia causing some to collapse even when low doses are administered, the mechanism responsible for this susceptibility is not clear.

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International Team Sequences Genome of Potato Blight Pathogen PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 11 September 2009 08:03
An international research team reported today in the advanced, online edition of Nature that they have sequenced the genome of a pathogenic water mold behind Ireland's 19th century potato famine. The team, led by researchers at the Broad Institute and the UK's Sainsbury Laboratory, used whole-genome shotgun sequencing to sequence the 240 million base genome of Phytophthora infestans. In the process, they identified clues about how the pathogen infiltrates and infects host plants. Based on their findings, the team suspects the pest can evolve by quickly shuffling infection-related genes in repeat-rich, gene-poor parts of the genome.
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Retroviral Remnants in Sloth Genome Offer Clues to Viral-Mammalian Co-Divergence PDF Print E-mail
Monday, 21 September 2009 02:00
Retroviral footprints in the two-toed sloth genome hint at co-divergence between these viruses and mammals. A team of British and Danish researchers used genomic, phylogenetic, and biogeographic analyses to track the evolutionary history of a type of retroviruses called foamy viruses in mammals. They found many foamy virus-like sequences in the genome of the two-toed sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni that they believe go back more than 100 million years. The research, which appears online today in Science, suggests mammals did not start being infected with foamy viruses recently, but co-diverged with these viruses.
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Two Studies Look At The Benefits And Limits Of The Information In Personal Genetics PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 18 September 2009 09:09
Two recent studies by Dartmouth researchers use individual genetic data to reveal the powers and limits of our current understanding of how the genome influences human health and what genes can reveal about the ancestry of the people of New Hampshire. Published in the Sept. 11 issue of the American Journal of Human Genetics, Dartmouth Professor Jason Moore and Vanderbilt Professor Scott Williams analyzed how personal genetic testing companies are using still-nascent genome data to judge the health of their customers. Their paper is titled "Epistasis and its Implications for Personal Genetics."
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Mechanism Related To The Onset Of Various Genetic Diseases Revealed PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 18 September 2009 03:28

Researchers at the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB) have revealed the process by which proteins with a tendency to cause conformational diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy, familial amyloidotic cardiomyopathy, etc. finally end up causing them. Researchers have carried out an analysis of their 3D structure and studied why these proteins finally become toxic although they are correctly folded, an indicator that they are functioning correctly. The answer can be found in the separation of the proteins, which under normal conditions are found in groups of two or more, caused by a genetic mutation in their composition. Researchers believe this discovery, published recently in the journal PLoS Computational Biology, could also be the cause of other diseases of unknown origins.

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New Sequencing Technique Could Boost Pine Beetle Fight, Improve Cancer Research PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 16 September 2009 10:59

UBC researchers have helped developed a cheaper, faster way to compile draft genome sequences that could advance the fight against mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation and improve cancer research. Current sequencing methods have a variety of advantages and disadvantages--including the cost involved. Dr Steven Jones and colleagues at UBC, the BC Cancer Agency and Simon Fraser University have combined cutting edge hardware with novel software to compile genome sequences at a fraction of the cost of previous methods. The technique is outlined in the current issue of the journal Genome Biology.

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Genetic Secrets Of Date Palm Unlocked PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 16 September 2009 10:54

Researchers at Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar have mapped a draft version of the date palm genome, unlocking many of its genetic secrets. "We have generated a draft DNA sequence and initial assembly of the date palm using the most advanced technology," says Joel Malek, director of the Genomics Laboratory at WCMC-Q. Genetic information about the date palm is extremely valuable to researchers who are working to improve fruit yield and quality and to better understand susceptibility and resistance to disease.

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Possible Genetic Factor For Male Infertility Identified PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 16 September 2009 10:51

Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine researchers have discovered a gene involved with the production of sperm that may contribute to male infertility and lead to new approaches to male contraception. One in six couples trying to conceive a baby is affected by infertility, according to the American Fertility Association – and in about half of these cases, a male factor is present. Sperm defects are often found to be the main cause or a contributing cause.

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Scientists Discover What Makes The Same Type Of Cells Different PDF Print E-mail
Monday, 14 September 2009 08:57

A research team led by Lucas Pelkmans at ETH Zürich has managed to decipher a well-known phenomenon that had, until now, remained unexplained: why cells of the same type can react differently, and what the reason for this is. The properties of a cell population determine the different cell activities observed in cells of the same type. This is the conclusion drawn by a research team lead by Lucas Pelkmans, professor at the Institute for Molecular Systems Biology at ETH Zürich. The scientists examined the cause of the well-known phenomenon of cell heterogeneity. Until now, the reasons behind the different reactions seen in cells of the same type had not been scrutinised.

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Genome Sequencing Reveals Genetic Diversity Of Bacteria That Cause Buruli Ulcer PDF Print E-mail
Saturday, 12 September 2009 11:34

A new study lays the groundwork for development of a cost-effective tool for studying the population structure and spread of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer. Researchers at the Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland, and the Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Legon, Ghana, developed SNP typing assays to systematically profile genetic diversity among M. ulcerans isolates by sequencing and comparing the genomes of selected strains.

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Two Genes Identified As Potential Therapeutic Targets For Multiple Sclerosis PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 11 September 2009 08:45

A Mayo Clinic study has found that two genes in mice were associated with good central nervous system repair in multiple sclerosis (MS). These findings give researchers new hope for developing more effective therapies for patients with MS and for predicting MS patients' outcomes. This study will be presented at the Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis in Dusseldorf, Germany, on Sept. 11, 2009.

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UK Genetics Group Issues 'Principles' for DTC Testing PDF Print E-mail
Thursday, 10 September 2009 23:32
The UK's Human Genetics Commission on Tuesday issued a set of principles for direct-to-consumer genetic testing that were drafted to provide guidance for consumers and to "promote high standards and consistency" among companies offering these tests. DTC genetic testing "has increased dramatically over the last 10 years" and needs internationally accepted guidelines, HGC said. The HGC principles center on the information and counseling consumers are provided before and after taking tests and on privacy considerations. They apply to all aspects of the industry, including marketing and advertising, consumer consent, lab analysis, and support for consumers.
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