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Biochemistry & Biophysics
Smarter Toxins Help Crops Fight Resistant Pests PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 12 October 2011 00:31
A researcher at MIT's Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer research has identified a gene that controls the process by which antibodies gain their ability to combat retroviruses. Edward Browne shows that the gene TLR7 allows the antibody generating B cells to detect the presence of a retrovirus and promotes a process by which antibodies gain strength and potency, called a germinal center reaction.
Chromosome Inheritance? Not the Same for All the Chromosomes PDF Print E-mail
Monday, 10 October 2011 00:02
New findings of researchers from the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Mauro Mandrioli, Valentina Monti and Gian Carlo Manicardi) show that in aphids the two X chromosomes have a different inheritance. The study was published in Comparative Cytogenetics.
Key Pathway in the Nitrogen Cycle Uncovered: Bacteria Forge Nitrogen from Nitric Oxide PDF Print E-mail
Saturday, 08 October 2011 01:35
The anaerobic oxidation of ammonia (anammox) is an important pathway in the nitrogen cycle that was only discovered in the 1980s. Currently, scientists estimate that about 50 percent of the nitrogen in the atmosphere is forged by this process.
Hide-And-Seek: Altered HIV Can't Evade Immune System PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 30 September 2011 00:59
Researchers at Johns Hopkins have modified HIV in a way that makes it no longer able to suppress the immune system. Their work, they say in a report published online September 19 in the journal Blood, could remove a major hurdle in HIV vaccine development and lead to new treatments.
Jumping Gene Enabled Key Step in Corn Domestication PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 30 September 2011 00:06
Corn split off from its closest relative teosinte, a wild Mexican grass, about 10,000 years ago thanks to the breeding efforts of early Mexican farmers. Today it's hard to tell that the two plants were ever close kin: Corn plants stand tall, on a single sturdy stalk, and produce a handful of large, kernel-filled ears.
Glow-In-The-Dark Millipede Says 'Stay Away' PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 28 September 2011 00:36
As night falls in certain mountain regions in California, a strange breed of creepy crawlies emerges from the soil: Millipedes that glow in the dark. The reason behind the glowing secret has stumped biologists until now.
Nature Offers Key Lessons On Harvesting Solar Power, Say Chemists PDF Print E-mail
Monday, 26 September 2011 00:09
Clean solutions to human energy demands are essential to our future. While sunlight is the most abundant source of energy at our disposal, we have yet to learn how to capture, transfer and store solar energy efficiently. According to University of Toronto chemistry professor Greg Scholes, the answers can be found in the complex systems at work in nature.
Novel Technique Reveals Both Gene Number and Protein Expression Simultaneously PDF Print E-mail
Monday, 26 September 2011 00:04
Researchers have discovered a method for simultaneously visualizing gene number and protein expression in individual cells.
Researchers Discover How 'Promiscuous Parasites' Hijack Host Immune Cells PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 23 September 2011 00:28
Toxoplasma gondii parasites can invade your bloodstream, break into your brain and prompt behavioral changes from recklessness to neuroticism. These highly contagious protozoa infect more than half the world's population, and most people's immune systems never purge the intruders.
Feed Your Genes: How Our Genes Respond to the Foods We Eat PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 21 September 2011 00:37
What should we eat? Answers abound in the media, all of which rely on their interpretation of recent medical literature to come up with recommendations for the healthiest diet. But what if you could answer this question at a molecular level -- what if you could find out how our genes respond to the foods we eat, and what this does to the cellular processes that make us healthy -- or not?
Lungfish Provides Insight to Life On Land: 'Humans Are Just Modified Fish' PDF Print E-mail
Monday, 10 October 2011 00:58
A study into the muscle development of several different fish has given insights into the genetic leap that set the scene for the evolution of hind legs in terrestrial animals. This innovation gave rise to the tetrapods -- four-legged creatures, and our distant ancestors -- that made the first small steps on land some 400 million years ago.
Aggression-Boldness Gene Identified in Model Fish PDF Print E-mail
Monday, 10 October 2011 00:00
A gene responsible for aggressive and bold behavior has been identified in zebrafish by a team from CNRS/Laboratoire Neurobiologie et Développement. This specific behavioral association, whose three characteristics are boldness, exploratory behavior and aggressiveness, has been described in many animal species.
Natural Compound Helps Reverse Diabetes in Mice PDF Print E-mail
Saturday, 08 October 2011 01:32
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have restored normal blood sugar metabolism in diabetic mice using a compound the body makes naturally. The finding suggests that it may one day be possible for people to take the compound much like a daily vitamin as a way to treat or even prevent type 2 diabetes.
Biochemists Identify New Genetic Code Repair Tool PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 30 September 2011 00:10
Clemson University researchers recently reported finding a new class of DNA repair-makers.

Clemson biochemist Weiguo Cao studies how cells repair damaged DNA. The finding from Cao's lab in the Clemson Biosystems Research Complex in collaboration with computational chemist Brian Dominy appeared in the Sept. 9 issue of The Journal of Biological Chemistry: "A new family of deamination repair enzymes in the uracil DNA glycosylase superfamily by Hyun-Wook Lee, Brian N. Dominy and Weiguo Cao."

Structure of a Molecular Copy Machine: How Mitochondrial Genes Are Transcribed PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 28 September 2011 00:38
Mitochondria are compartments within cells and have their own DNA. The key protein required for the expression of the genetic information in this DNA is the mitochondrial RNA polymerase enzyme. Its three-dimensional structure has now been determined in atomic detail.
Poisonous Effect of Intestinal Bacteria Explained: Researchers Identify Site of Action of Cytotoxin Produced by 'Hypervirulent' Intestinal Flora PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 28 September 2011 00:34
A research group led by Freiburg pharmacologist Prof. Dr. Klaus Aktories and their American colleagues have discovered the cell receptor for the toxin CDT of the bacterium Clostridium difficile. These germs often cause an inflammation of the colon in patients who have recently received a treatment with antibiotics.
Nature Shows the Way: Self-Healing Membranes PDF Print E-mail
Monday, 26 September 2011 00:07
The plant liana, whose stabilization rings of woody cells heal spontaneously after suffering damage, serves as a natural example to bionic experts of self-repairing membranes.
New Insight Into Immune Tolerance Furthers Understanding of Autoimmune Disease PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 23 September 2011 00:31
It is no easy task to preserve the delicate balance that allows us to maintain a strong immune system that can defend us from harmful pathogens, but that is sensitive enough to correctly identify and spare our own cells. Therefore, it is not surprising that the mechanisms that underlie immune activation and tolerance are not completely understood.
Human Body Rids Itself of Damage When It Really Matters PDF Print E-mail
Friday, 23 September 2011 00:23
Although the body is constantly replacing cells and cell constituents, damage and imperfections accumulate over time. Cleanup efforts are saved for when it really matters. Researchers from the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, are able to show how the body rids itself of damage when it is time to reproduce and create new life.
Unzipping DNA Mysteries: Physicists Discover How a Vital Enzyme Works PDF Print E-mail
Wednesday, 21 September 2011 00:35
With an eye toward understanding DNA replication, Cornell researchers have learned how a helicase enzyme works to actually unzip the two strands of DNA.

The results are published in the journal Nature.

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